Transpiration and water use efficiency of maize in different soil moisture conditions

PDF

Authors: Jana Klimešová, Hana Středová, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Tomáš Středa

Volume/Issue: Volume 24: Issue 2

Published online: 02 Dec 2021

Pages: 105 - 109

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/ahr-2021-0031


Abstract

Globally, agriculture accounts for 80–90% of the fresh water used by humans, and in many crop production systems; this water use is unsustainable. Irrigation of large areas of field and horticultural crops is impossible. Studies of the impact of drought on important field and horticultural crops are necessary to estimate dimensions of adaptation and mitigation measures to climate change. For this purpose, maize was monitored as a model crop in this study. In a three-year experiment (i) using the sap flow measurement method, the transpiration of maize was evaluated during flowering and grain filling, (ii) water use efficiency (WUE) was evaluated in four soil moisture conditions. The intensity of transpiration was closely correlated with the values of global radiation and vapor pressure deficit. However, soil water content was a major factor influencing transpiration under drought stress. The transpiration decreased when water content in the soil reached 28% of available water holding capacity (AWHC), but the yield of corn cobs decreased only under stress of 25% AWHC. Thus, the yield reacted less sensitively to lower water availability than transpiration. WUE increased with decreasing transpiration. Statistically significantly higher WUE was already observed at a water content of 42% AWHC, however, a higher WUE did not lead to a higher yield of corn cobs.


Keywords: sap flow, corn, WUE, drought, yield

PDF

References

Cai, F., Zhang, Y., Mi, N., Ming, H., Zhang, S., Zhang, H., & Zhao, X. (2020). Maize (Zea mays L.) physiological responses to drought and rewatering, and the associations with water stress degree. Agricultural Water Management, 241(1), 106379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106379


Çakir, R. (2004). Effect of water stress at different development stages on vegetative and reproductive growth of corn. Field Crops Research, 89(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2004.01.005


Chaves, M. M., Zarrouk, O., Francisco, R., Costa, J. M., Santos, T., Regalado, A. P., Rodrigues, M. L. & Lopes, C. M. (2010). Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data. Annals of Botany, 105(5), 661–676. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcq030


Djaman, K., & Irmak, S. (2012). Soil water extraction patterns and crop, irrigation, and evapotranspiration water use efficiency of maize under full and limited irrigation and rainfed settings. Transactions of the ASABE, 55(4), 1223–1238. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.42262


Escalona, J., Flexas, J., & Medrano, H. (2002). Drought effects on water flow, photosynthesis and growth of potted grapevines. VITIS-GEILWEILERHOF, 41(2), 57–62. https://doi.org/10.5073/vitis.2002.41.57-62


Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Kobayashi, N., Fujita, D., & Basra, S. M. A. (2009). Plant drought stress: Effects, mechanisms and management. In Lichtfouse, E. et al. (eds.), Sustainable Agriculture (pp. 153–188). Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2008021


Gavloski, J. E., Ellis, C. R., & Whitfield, G. (1992). Effect of restricted watering on sap flow and growth in corn (Zea mays L.). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 72(2), 361–368. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps92-040


Klimešová, J., Holková, L., & Středa, T. (2020). Drought stress response in maize: Molecular, morphological and physiological analysis of tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Maydica, 65(1), 1–9.


Klocke, N. L., Schneekloth, J. P., Melvin, S. R., Clark, R. T., & Payero, J. O. (2004). Field scale limited irrigation scenarios for water policy strategies. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 20(5), 623–631. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.17465


Kučera, J., Čermák, J., & Penka, M. (1977). Improved thermal method of continual recording the transpiration flow rate dynamics. Biologia Plantarum, 19(6), 413–420. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02922976


Matejka, F., Hurtalová, T., Rožnovský, J., & Chalupníková, B. (2005). Effect of soil moisture on evapotranspiration of a maize stand during one growing season. Contributions to Geophysics and Geodesy, 35(3), 219–228.


Meier, U. (1997). BBCH-Monograph. Growth stages of of mono- and dicotyledonous plants. Berlin und Wien: Blackwell Wissenschaftsverlag.


Spáčilová, B., Středová, H. & Středa, T. (2014). Dopady měnícího se klimatu na zemědělskou produkci. 1st ed., Brno: Mendelova univerzita v Brně.


Tallec, T., Béziat, P., Jarosz, N., Rivalland, V., & Ceschia, E. (2013). Crops’ water use efficiencies in temperate climate: Comparison of stand, ecosystem and agronomical approaches. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 168, 69–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.07.008


Vamerali, T., Saccomani, M., Bona, S., Mosca, G., Guarise, M., & Ganis, A. (2003). A comparison of root characteristics in relation to nutrient and water stress in two maize hybrids. In Roots: The Dynamic Interface Between Plants and the Earth (pp. 157-167). Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-2923-9_15