The impact of apple preparation on the content of chlorpyrifos pesticide residues in the final products


Authors: Aleksandar Dimoski, Vezirka Jankuloska, Gorica Pavlovska and Anka Trajkovska-Petkoska

Volume/Issue: Volume 24: Issue 2

Published online: 02 Dec 2021

Pages: 134 - 140



The apples of Red Delicious are round fruits that have red colour when ripe according to which they are named. They can be eaten fresh, but also can be processed into a variety of processed products including apple juice. In order to grow or obtain better yield of a good quality apples, pesticides are usually used to protect apple trees, but they can adversely affect human health, therefore, some precautions should be taken when these chemicals are used as food contact materials. This study summarizes the presence of chlorpyrifos pesticide residues in apples that are prepared by different methods including mechanical treatments, fresh, washed, peeled as well as heat treatment of apples when prepared into an apple juice. For this purpose, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method was used for residue extraction in apple samples after different methods of preparation, and their analyses were performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentration of the pesticide chlorpyrifos in different samples of apples was in the range of less than 0.0005−1 to 0.00348−1. This study provides a conclusion that all samples of apples are safe for consumption while the peeling method and heat treatment are the most efficient in reduction of chlorpyrifos content in the final products.

Keywords: apple, chlorpyrifos, apple juice, processing factor, food safety



Anastassiades, M., Lehotay, S. J., Stajnbaher, D., & Schenck, F. J. (2003). Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and dispersive solid-phase extraction for the determination of pesticide residues in produce. Journal of AOAC International, 86(2), 412–431.

Badr, А. N., Ahmed, M. B. M., Amer, M. M., Thang, N. V., & Fouzy, S. M. A. (2019). Pesticides Evaluation in Egyptian Fruits and Vegetables: A Safety Assessment Study. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12(2), 81–91.

Balinova, A. M., Mladenova, R. I., & Shtereva, D. nD. (2006). Effects of processing on pesticide residues in peaches intended for baby food. Food Additives Contaminants, 23(9), 895–901.

Bonnechère, A., Hanot, V., Jolie, R., Hendrickx, M., Bragard, C., Bedoret, T., & Van Loco, J. (2012). Processing Factors of Several Pesticides and Degradation Products in Carrots by Household and Industrial Processing. Journal of Food Research, 1(3), 68–83.

Bruzzoniti, M. C., Checchini, L., De Carlo, R. M., Orlandini, S., Rivoira, L., & Del Bubba, M. (2014). QuEChERS sample preparation for the determination of pesticides and other organic residues in environmental matrices: a critical review. Anal Bioanal Chemistry, 406(17), 4089–4116.

Chavarri, M. J., Herrera, A., & Arino, A. (2005). The decrease in pesticides in fruit and vegetables during commercial processing. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 40(2), 205–211.

Dasika, R., Tangirala, S., & Naishadham, P. (2012). Pesticide residue analysis of fruits and vegetables. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 4, 19–28. DOI: 10.5897/JECE11.072 Retrieved September 23 2021 from

Dömötörová, М., Hercegová, A., & Matisová, E. (2006). Monitoring of pesticide residues in apples from Slovakia for baby food production. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 24(2), 84–92.

Drouillet-Pinard, P., Boisset, M., Periquet, A., Lecerf, J. M., Casse, F., Catteau, M., & Barnat, S. (2011). Realistic approach of pesticide residues and French consumer exposure within fruit & vegetable intake. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 46(1), 84–91.

El-Sayed, E., Hassan, H., Abd El-Raouf, A., & Salman, S. N. (2021). Investigation of the effects of household processing on the reduction rate of chlorpyrifos, metalaxyl and diazinon residues in orange fruit. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 14, 64–75.

Hancock, F. J., Luby, J. J., Brown, S. K., & Lobos, G. A. (2008). Apples. In J. F. Hancock (Ed.), Temperate fruit crop breeding (pp. 1–37). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Icka, P., & Damo, R. (2014). Assessment of harvest time for red delicious cv. trough harvest indexes in Albania. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 20(3), 628–632. Retrieved September 23 2021 from

Jankuloska, V., Pavlovska, G., & Karov, I. (2020). Assessment of adults and children exposure to pesticide residues through apple consumption. Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design, 33, 34–40. Retrieved September 25 2021 from

John, E., & Shaike, J. (2015). Chlorpyrifos: pollution and remediation. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 13, 269–291.

Kaushik, G., Satya, S., & Naik, S. N. (2009). Food processing a tool to pesticide residue dissipation – A review. Food Research International, 42(1), 26–40.

Keikotlhaile, M. B., Spanoghe, P., & Steurbaut, W. (2009). Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables: A meta-analysis approach. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(1), 1–6.

Khan, N., Yaqub, Gh., Hafeez, T., & Tariq, M. (2020). Assessment of Health Risk due to Pesticide Residues in Fruits, Vegetables, Soil, and Water. Journal of Chemistry, 2020.

Koch, S., Epp, A., Lohmann, M., & Bol, G. (2017). Pesticide residues in Food: Attitudes, beliefs and misconceptions among conventional and organic consumers. Journal of Food Protection, 80(12), 2083–2089.

Kovalczuk, T., Lacina, O., Jech, M., Poustka, J., &Hajslova, J. (2008). Novel approach to fast determination of multiple pesticide residues using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Food Additives and Contaminants, 25(4), 444–457.

Ling, Y., Wang, H., Yong, W., Zhang, F., Sun, L., Yang, M. L., Wu, Y. N., & Chu, X. G. (2011). The effects of washing and cooking on chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolites in vegetables. Food Control, 22(1), 54–58.

Lozowicka, B., Abzeitova, Е., Sagitov, А., Kaczynski, P., Toleubayev, K., & Li, A. (2015). Studies of pesticide residues in tomatoes and cucumbers from Kazakhstan and the associated health risks. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(10), 609.

Mackay, D., Giesy, J. P., & Solomon, K. R. (2014). Fate in the environment and long-range atmospheric transport of the organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos and its oxon. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 231, 35–76.

Mebdou, S., Lazali, M., Ounane, M. S., Tellah, S., Nabia, F., & Ounane, Gh. (2017). Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria. Food additives & Contaminants: Part B, 10(2), 91–98.

Official Journal of the European Union (2005). Regulation (EU) 396/2005. Maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC. Retrieved May 20, 2021 from

Official Journal of the European Union (2020)a. Regulation (EU) 2020/1085. Annexes II and V to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl in or on certain products. Retrieved July 15, 2021 from

Official Journal of the European Union (2020)b. Regulation (EU) 2020/18. Concerning the non-renewal of the approval of the active substance chlorpyrifos, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market, and amending the Annex to Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 540/2011. Retrieved July 15, 2021 from

Official Journal of the European Union (2021). CommissionImplementing Regulation (EU) 540/2011. Implementing Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the list of approved active substances. Retrieved August 27, 2021 from

Official Newspaper of the Republic of Macedonia (2018). Rulebook on general food safety requirements regarding the maximum permitted levels of pesticide residues in or on food and animal feed of plant and animal origin, 91. Retrieved June 27, 2021 from

Paz, M., Correia-Sa, L., Vidal, C.B., Becker, H., Longhinotti, E., Domingues, F. V., & Delerue-Matos, C. (2017). Application of the QuEChERS method for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in Brazilian fruit pulps by GC-ECD. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, part B, 52(1), 48–58.

Paz, M., Gullon, P., Barroso, M. F., Carvalho, A., Domingues, V. F., Gomes, A. M., Becker, H., Longhinotti, E., & Delerue-Matos, C. (2015). Brazilian fruit pulps as functional foods and additives: evaluation of bioactive compounds. Food Chemistry, 172, 462–468.

Quintero, A., Caselles, M.J., Ettiene, G., de Colmenares, N.G., Ramirez, T., & Medina, D. (2008). Monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables of agricultural area in Venezuela. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 81, 393–396.

Radišić, M., Grujić, S., Vasiljević, T., &Laušević, M. (2009). Determination of selected pesticides in fruit juices by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food chemistry, 113(2), 712–719.

Rahman, M., Sazedul Hoque, Md., Bhowmik, Sh., Ferdousi, Sh., Kabiraz, P. M., van Brakel, L. M. (2021). Monitoring of pesticide residues from fish feed, fish and vegetables in Bangladesh by GC-MS using the QuEChERS method. Heliyon, 7(3) 1–8.

Rupasinghe, V. H. P & Thilakarathna, S. (2016). Apple Juice. In Shahidi F., & Alasalvar, C. (Eds.). Handbook of Functional Beverages and Human Health (pp. 93–107). CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.

Sabarwal, A., Kumar, K., & Singh, R. (2018). Hazardous effects of chemical pesticides on human health-cancel and other associated disorders. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 63, 103–114.

Satpathy, G., Tyagi, Y. K., & Gupta, R. K. (2012). Removal of organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues from vegetables using various washing solutions and boiling. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(2), 69–78.

Scholz, R., van Donkersgoed, G., Herrmann, M., Kittelmann, A., von Schledorn, M., Graven, C., Mahieu, K., van der Velde-Koerts, T., Anagnostopoulos, Ch., Bempelou, E., & Michalski, B. (2018). European database of processing factors for pesticides. EFSA supporting publication 2018:EN-1510.

Sharma, D., Nagpal, A., Pakade, Y.B., & Katnoria, J. K. (2010). Analytical methods for estimation of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: A review. Talanta, 82(4), 1077–1089.

Sheikh, A. S., Panhwar, A. A., Khan, S., Soomro, H. A., & Khaskheli, G. Sh. (2015). Removal of pesticide residues in bitter gourd peel by traditional processing methods. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences, 4(12), 6639–6648. Retrieved September 23 2021 from

Simon, S., Brun, L., Guinaudeau, J., & Sauphanor, B. (2011). Pesticide use in current and innovative apple orchard systems. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 31, 541–555.

Singh, N., Wang, C., & Cooper, R. (2014). Potential of Essential Oil-Based Pesticides and Detergents for Bed Bug Control. Economic Entomology, 107(6), 2163–2170.

Stachniuk, A., Szmagara, A., Czeczko, R., & Fornal, E. (2017). LC-MS/MS determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Journal of Environmental science and Health, Part B, 52(7), 446–457.

Standardization Institute of the Republic of Macedonia. (2011). Macedonia MKS EN 15662: 2011 – Foods of plant origin – Determination of pesticide residues using GC-MS and/or LC-MS/MS following acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and clean-up by dispersive SPE – QuEChERS-method.

Štěpán, R., Tichá, J. Hajšlová, Kovalczuk, T., & Kocourek, V. (2005). Baby food production chain: Pesticide residues in fresh apples and products. Food Additives & Contaminants, 22(12), 1231–1242.

Suárez-Jacoboa, A., Alcantar-Rosales, M.V., Alonso-Segura, D., Heras-Ramírez, M., Elizarragaz-De La Rosa, D., Lugo-Melchor, O., & Gaspar-Ramirez, O. (2017). Pesticide residues in orange fruit from citrus orchards in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Food additives & Contaminants: Part B, 10(3), 192–199.

Yang, T., Doherty, J., Zhao, B., Kinchla, A., Clark, J., & He, L. (2017). Effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in removing pesticide residues on and in apples. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65(44), 9744–9752.