Effect of biochar amendment and nitrogen fertilization on soil CO2 emission during spring period


Authors: Tatijana Kotuš, Ján Horák and Katarína Drgoňová

Volume/Issue: Volume 25: Issue 2

Published online: 01 Nov 2022

Pages: 121 - 128

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/ahr-2022-0016


Biochar application to agriculture soil has been recommended as a strategy to reduce increasing CO2 emission in the atmosphere and mitigate climate change. In this study, we evaluated the impact of two doses of biochar (10 and 20 t.ha-1) applied in 2014 and reapplied in 2018 combined with three fertilization levels (N0, N1, N2) on carbon dioxide emissions and selected physical and chemical soil properties in fi eld conditions during spring season (April–June) in 2020. The fi eld site is situated in the Nitra region of Slovakia (Malanta). The soil in the fi eld was classifi ed as a silt loam Haplic Luvisol. In this fi eld research it was found that biochar application mostly in all treatments decreased cumulative CO2 emissions in rage from 4.2% to 30.4% compared to controls (B0N0, B0N2), except treatments where biochar was applied with lower level of N-fertilizer (N1) and treatment B20N0. According to our study results, it was confi rmed that biochar can be a promising material for improving soil physical and chemical properties. Mainly, it has very good impact on soil pH, even after seven years of fi eld experiment established. However, the response of soil CO2 fl uxes to biochar application were regulated mainly by experiment length, biochar application rate, biochar properties, giving a new perspective for more comprehensive understanding on biochar.

Keywords: biochar, CO2 emission, soil chemical and physical properties



Ameloot, N., De Neve, S., Jegajeevagan, K., Yildiz, G., Buchan, D., Funkuin, Y. N., ... & Sleutel, S. (2013). Short-term CO2 and N2O emissions and microbial properties of biochar amended sandy loam soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 57, 401–410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.10.025

Aamer, M., Shaaban, M., Hassan, M. U., Guoqin, H., Ying, L., Ying, T. H., ... & Peng, Z. (2020). Biochar mitigates the N2O emissions from acidic soil by increasing the nosZ and nirK gene abundance and soil pH. Journal of environmental management, 255, 109891. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109891

Berek, A. K., & Hue, N. (2016). Characterization of Biochars and Their Use as an Amendment to Acid Soils. Soil Science, 181, 412–454. 10.1097/SS.0000000000000177

Bovsun, M.A., Nesterova, O.V., Semal, V.A., & Sakara, N.A. (2021). The influence of the biochar application on the CO2 emission from Luvic Anthrosols in the south of Primorsky region (Russian Far East). Earth and Environmental Science, 862, 012091. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/862/1/012091

Cross, A., & Sohi, S.P. (2011). The priming potential of biochar products in relation to labile carbon contents and soil organic matter status. Soil Biol. Biochem., 43, 2127–2134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.06.016

Chintala, R., Schumacher, T. E., McDonald, L. M., Clay, D. E., Malo, D. D., Papiernik, S. K., ... & Julson, J. L. (2014). Phosphorus sorption and availability from biochars and soil/B iochar mixtures. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water, 42(5), 626–634. https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201300089

DeLuca, T. H., & Sala, A. (2006). Frequent fire alters nitrogen transformations in pondersoa pine stands of the inland northwest. Ecology, 87, 2511–2522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137636

Elder, W. J., & Lal, R. (2008). Tillage effects on gaseous emissions from an intensively farmed organic soil in North Central Ohio. Soil & Tillage Research, 98(1), 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2007.10.003

Jones, D. L., Rousk, J., Edwards-Jones, G., DeLuca, T. H., & Murphy, D. V. (2012). Biochar-mediated changes in soil quality and plant growth in a three year field trial. Soil biology and Biochemistry, 45, 113–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.10.012

Karim, M. R., Halim, M. A., Gale, N. V., & Thomas, S. C. (2020). Biochar effects on soil physiochemical properties in degraded managed ecosystems in northeastern Bangladesh. Soil Systems, 4(4), 69. https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems4040069

Liao, W., & Thomas, S. C. (2019). Biochar particle size and post-pyrolysis mechanical processing affect soil pH, water retention capacity, and plant performance. Soil Systems, 3(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems3010014

Lopes de Gerenyu, V.O., Kurganova, I.N., & Kudeyarov, V.N. (2005). Effect of soil temperature and moisture on СO2 evolution rate of cultivated Phaeozem: analysis of a long-term field experiment. Plant Soil Environ., 51, 213–2019. https://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/50959.pdf

Spokas, K. A., Novak, J. M., & Venterea, R. T. (2012). Biochar’s role as an alternative N-fertilizer: ammonia capture. Plant Soil, 350, 35–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0930-8

Steiner, C., Das, K.C., Garcia, M., Forseter, B., & Zech, W. (2008). Charcoal and smoke extract stimulate the soil microbial community in a highly weathered xanthinc Ferralsol. Pedobiologia, 51, 359–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedobi.2007.08.002

Ullah, S., Liang, H., Ali, I., Zhao, Q., Iqbal, A., Wei, S., ... & Jiang, L. (2020). Biochar coupled with contrasting nitrogen sources mediated changes in carbon and nitrogen pools, microbial and enzymatic activity in paddy soil. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 24(11), 835–849. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2020.08.008

Xiong, J., Yu, R., Islam, E., Zhu, F., Zha, J., & Sohail, M.I. (2020). Effect of Biochar on Soil Temperature under High Soil Surface Temperature in Coal Mined Arid and Semiarid Regions. Sustainability, 12, 8238. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198238