The plants mentioned in the bible and their equivalents in Lithuanian churchyards

PDF

Authors: Rutalė Mindaugas and Rimantė Kondratienė

Volume/Issue: Volume 26: Issue 2

Published online: 15 Nov 2023

Pages: 73 - 79

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/ahr-2023-0011


Abstract

People‘s daily life is unimaginable without plants vegetations. Since ancient times, plants have provided human beings with some kinds of needs – they feed, train, heal, provide shelter, delight the eye, and decorate the environment. It is proposed to grow woody plants mentioned in the Bible and introduced in Lithuania in churchyards. Plants mentioned in the Bible that cannot be grown in Lithuania can be replaced with similar visual, ecological and biological properties. It is proposed to put information about the plant and a text from the Bible next to the plants. The most common small architectural structures in churchyards are crosses, chapels, shrines, chapel columns, decorative pools, sculptures of saints, stations of the cross, tombstones, fences, notice boards, lourdes, nativity scenes for Christmas. By using different environmental design tools, it is possible to create church churchyards as Bible gardens.


Keywords: biblical garden, churchyard, plants, sacred landscapes

PDF

References

Bannister, P. & Neuner, G. (2001). Frost resistance and the distribution of conifers. P.3–22 in F.J. Bigras and S.J. Colombo (eds.), Conifer cold hardiness. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Barber, A., Haase, D., & Wolff, M. (2021). Permeability of the city – Physical barriers of and in urban green spaces in the city of Halle, Germany. Ecological Indicators, 125, 107555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107555


Bielo, J. S. (2016). Materializing the Bible: Ethnographic methods for the consumption process. Practical Matters: A Journal of Religious Practices and Practical Theology, 9, 54–69.


Bielo, J. S. (2018). Biblical gardens and the sensuality of religious pedagogy. Material religion, 14(1), 3–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17432200.2017.1345099


Dafni, A., & Böck, B. (2019). Medicinal plants of the Bible – revisited. Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine, 15(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-019-0338-8


De Lacy, P., & Shackleton, C. M. (2017). Woody plant species richness, composition and structure in urban sacred sites, Grahamstown, South Africa. Urban Ecosystems, 20(5), 1169-1179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-017-0669-y


Fora, C. G., Sasu, L., Poşta, D., & Berar, C. (2016). Chemical possibilities of Cydalima perspectalis Walk. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) control. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology, 20(3), 31–34.


Gloning, P., Estrella, N., & Menzel, A. (2013). The impacts of climate change on the winter hardiness zones of woody plants in Europe. Theoretical and applied climatology, 113, 683–695. https://doi.10.1007/s00704-012-0817-5


Hitter, T., Oros, P., Buta, E., & Cantor, M. (2020). Ornamental plants used in landscape architecture design of a biblical garden. Current Trends in Natural Sciences, 9(17), 249–256. https://doi.org/10.47068/ctns.2020.v9i17.031


Jacob, B., & Jacob, W. (2007). The first book of the bible, genesis. Jersey City: KTAV Publishing House, Inc.


Jensen, J. J. (2019). The Medieval Urban Churchyard as a Meeting Place: A Case Study of Function and Organisation of the Churchyard of St. Clemens in Copenhagen. Acta archaeologica, 90(2), 111–125. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0390.2019.12215.x


Kaczyńska, M. (2020). The church garden as an element improving the quality of city life – A case study in Warsaw. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 54, 126765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126765


Kaczynska, M. & Sikora, D. O. R. O. T. A. (2015). The church garden as an element shaping the quality of city life – a case study in southern Warsaw. Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, 36.


König, H. A., Gallenkamp, N., & Gallenkamp, B. (2004). Der Bibelgarten der Markusgemeinde. Evangelische Markusgemeinde, 1–40.


Löki, V., Deák, B., Lukács, A. B., & Molnár, A. (2019). Biodiversity potential of burial places – a review on the flora and fauna of cemeteries and churchyards. Global Ecology and Conservation, 18, e00614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00614


Mckenna, D. J., & Hughes, K. (2014). The incense bible: Plant scents that transcend world culture, medicine, and spirituality. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315864785


Mitkowska, A., & Siewniak, M. (1997). Sacrum w ogrodach historycznych i symbolika ich roślinności. Sacrum w ogrodach : święte ogrody kalwaryjne i ich symbolika, Krakow.


Onose, D. A., Iojă, I. C., Slave, A. R., Grădinaru, S. R., Gavrilidis, A. A., & Popa, A. M. (2021, September). Can Church Gardens Represent a Valuable Recreation Alternative in Cities? In CITIES 20.50 – Creating Habitats for the 3rd Millennium: Smart– Sustainable – Climate Neutral. Proceedings of REAL CORP 2021, 26th International Conference on Urban Development, Regional Planning and Information Society (pp. 143–152). CORP – Competence Center of Urban and Regional Planning.


Rostami, R., Lamit, H., Khoshnava, S. M., Rostami, R., & Fitry Rosley, M. S. (2015). Sustainable cities and the contribution of historical urban green spaces: A case study of historical Persian gardens. Sustainability, 7(10), 13290–13316. https://doi.org/10.3390/su71013290


Scheuer, H. (2008). Religion und Gartenkunst im Dialog. Der Moses-Bibelgarten in Jägerwirth, Kultur im Landkreis Passau, 35-40.


Shams, I., & Barker, A. (2019). Barriers and opportunities of combining social and ecological functions of urban greenspaces – Users’ and landscape professionals’ perspectives. Urban forestry & urban greening, 39, 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2019.02.007


Stara, K., & Tsiakiris, R. (2019). Oriental Planes L. and Other Monumental Trees in Central Squares and Churchyards in NW Greece: Sacred, Emblematic and Threatened. Acta Horticulturae et Regiotecturae, 22(1), 14–18. https://doi.org/10.2478/ahr-2019-0003


Stigsdotter, U., & Grahn, P. (2002). What makes a garden a healing garden. Journal of therapeutic Horticulture, 13(2), 60–69.


Tóth, A., Timpe, A., Stiles, R., Damyanovic, D., Valánszki, I., Salašová, A., Cieszewska, A., & Brabec, E. (2019). Small sacral Christian architecture in the cultural landscapes of Europe. Acta Horticulturae et Regiotecturae, 22(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.2478/ahr-2019-0001


Vita, A., & Boc, V. (2022). Biblical gardens at cheia monastery domains. Scientific Papers. Series B. Horticulture, 66(1).


Włodarczyk, Z. (2018). Biblical garden–a review, characteristics and definition based on twenty years of research. Folia Horticulturae, 30(2), 229–248. https://doi.org/10.2478/fhort-2018-0020


Włodarczyk, Z., & Kapczyńska, A. (2019). Biblical Gardens in Word Culture: Genesis and History. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 32(5), 835–854. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10806-019-09801-3