Efficient Use of Water and Fertilizers in Irrigated Agriculture: Drip Irrigation and Fertigation
Efficient Use of Water and Fertilizers in Irrigated Agriculture: Drip Irrigation and FertigationPDF
Authors: Öner Çetin and Erhan Akalp
Volume/Issue: Volume 22: Issue 2
Published online: 01 Nov 2019
Increasing food demand and decreasing water resources have composed a kind of pressure to find new technologies for efficient use of water and fertilizers in agriculture. Drip irrigation can be able to save irrigation water from 30% up to 50% in case it is properly designed, installed and operated compared to surface irrigation, and it can also enable increasing crop yields and crop quality. In order to get the highest benefits using drip irrigation, some soil data (infiltration rate, soil texture and soil structure), crop characteristics (row space, plant density, canopy cover, root system, crop species, crop variety) and water resources properties (water quality, surface or well water) must be considered in drip system design, management and operation. Fertigation is basically an agricultural technique and application together with water and fertilizer to soil and/or plants. It increases both yield and fertilizer use efficiency; therefore, leaching of nutrients is prevented. In order to utilize fertigation successfully, the four main factors must be considered: (i) the consumption rate of water and nutrients throughout the growth season that result in optimal yields, (ii) response in uptake of different crops to nutrient concentration in the soil and soil solutions, (iii) monitoring for total soil water potential, nutrients concentration in soil solution and % elements in plants as a function of time and (iv) root mass and distribution in the soil for given irrigation regimes and soil types.
Keywords: nutrient use efficiency, water use efficiency, water saving, sustainability
ANONYMOUS. 2019a. Water and agriculture. [online] cit. [2019-08-10]. Available at: https://blogs.worldbank.org/opendata/chart-globally-70-freshwater-used-agriculture
ANONYMOUS. 2019b. [online] cit. [2019-08-10]. Available at: oxfarmorganic.com
ANONYMOUS. 2019c. [online] cit. [2019-08-10]. Available at: greenmylife.in
BARUA S. – KUMAR R. – SINGH S.P. 2018. Water saving techniques in agriculture. [online] cit. [2019-03-19]. Available at: https://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles
BAR-YOSEF B. 1999. Advances in fertigation. In Adv. Agron 199 no. 65 pp. 1–77.
BURT M.C. 1998. Fertigation Basics. Irrigation Training and Research Center (ITRC) ITRC Paper 98-001. San Luis Obispo CA USA : California Polytechnic University 1998.
ÇETIN Ö. – ÜZEN N. – TEMIZ M.G. – BAŞBAG S. 2018. Comparison of surface and sub-surface drip irrigation and real-time irrigation scheduling based on FAO-56-Penman-Monteith for cotton. Final Project Report Project No: TUBITAK 115O600 Ankara Turkey (with an English abstract in Turkish).
ÇETIN O. – UYGAN D. 2008. The effect of drip line spacing irrigation regimes and planting geometries of tomato on yield irrigation water use efficiency and net return. In Agric. Wate. Manage. vol. 95 2008 no. 8 pp. 949–958.
ÇETIN O. – BILGEL L. 2002. Effects of different irrigation methods on shedding and yield of cotton. In Agric. Wate. Manage vol. 54 2002 no. 1 pp. 1–15.
CHARTZOULAKIS K. – BERTAKI M. 2015. Sustainable water management in agriculture under climate change. In Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 2015 no. 4 pp. 88–98.
HAGIN J. – SNEH M. – LOWENGART-AYCICEGI A. 2003. Fertigation Fertilization through Irrigation. International Potash Instituıte IPI Research Topics Basel Switzerland 2003 no. 23.
KAFKAFI U. – TARCHITSKY J. 2011. Fertigation. A tool for efficient fertilizer and water management. Intl. Fert. Ind. Assn. Paris France and Intl. Horgen Switzerland : Potash Inst. 2011.
KHOKHAR T. 2017. Globally 70% of freshwater is used for agriculture. Available at: https://blogs.worldbank.org/opendata/chart-globally-70-freshwater-used-agriculture
MANOR S. – LOWENGART A. – BRUM M. – HAZAN A. – BAR I. – GEVA S. 1983. The technology of chemigation: Uniformity of Distribution in the Irrigation. In 3rd International Conference on Irrigation Tel-Aviv Israel 3–6 October 1983.
OECD. 2010. Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture. ISBN 978-92-64-08345-5 (print). DOI 10.1787/9789264083578-en
POSTEL S. – POLAK P. – GONZALES F. – KELLER J. 2001. Drip irrigation for small farmers. A new initiative to alleviate hunger and poverty. In Water Intern. vol. 26 2001 no. 1 pp. 3–13.
SCHWANKL L. – HANSON B. – PRICHARD T. 1998. Micro-irrigation of trees and vines: A handbook for water managers. Publ. 3378. Oakland CA : Div. Agr. Natural Resources Univ. Calif. 1998.
SHAH S.K. 2011. Towards Adopting Nanotechnology in Irrigation. Micro Irrigation Systems. Karnataka India : India Water Portal 2011.
STEIN L.A. 2019. Drip irrigation: Salvation for the gardener. Texas AgriLife Extension Service. Texas USA : Texas A & M University College Station 2019.
ÜZEN N. – ÇETIN Ö. – KARAER M. 2013. Micro Irrigation for Modern Agriculture. 1st Central Asia Congress on Modern Agricultural Techniques and Plant Nutrition Bishkek Kyrgyzstan 01–03 October 2013 pp. 2131–2138.
ÜZEN N. – ÇETIN Ö. 2016. Effects of nitrogen fertigation frequency on yield and nitrogen retention in drip-irrigated cotton. In Journal of Plant Nutrition vol. 39 2016 no. 14 pp. 2126–2135.
WALLACE J.S. 2000. Increasing agricultural water use efficiency to meet future food production. In Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 2000 no. 82 pp. 105–119.
YAN X.L. – DAI T.F. – JIA L.M. 2018. Evaluation of the cumulative effect of drip irrigation and fertigation on productivity in a poplar plantation. In Annals of Forest Science 2018 no. 75 p. 5.
YOLCU R. – ÇETIN Ö. 2015. Nitrogen fertigation to improve nitrogen use efficiency and crude protein on silage corn. In Turk J Field Crops vol. 20 2015 no. 2 pp. 233–241.